AbstractsComputer Science

The factors influencing the employment of the Australian Defence Organisation in homeland security roles since 11 September 2001

by Andrew Smith

Institution: University of New South Wales
Department: Humanities & Social Sciences
Year: 2007
Keywords: Homeland security; terrorism; Australian Defence Force; Australian Defence Organisation (ADO); internal security; military policy; defenses
Record ID: 1033164
Full text PDF: http://handle.unsw.edu.au/1959.4/38735


This thesis makes an assessment of the factors influencing the involvement of the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) in homeland security roles since 11 September 2001 (9/11). This is approached on a largely empirical basis, using document analysis and case studies supported with interviews with key individuals and experts. The thesis commences with an Introduction that provides brief context for the thesis and specifies its central question as ‘what factors have shaped the role of the ADO in Australia's response to the homeland security environment that has emerged since 11 September 2001.’ Chapter One provides an historical and theoretical context for the key concepts of homeland security and the challenges confronting Western governments in the homeland security arena. Chapter Two explores the implications of those challenges for Australia, before outlining the research method and providing a literature review. Chapter Three is an historical exposition of homeland security in Australia from British settlement in 1788 until 2001. The Chapter examines events in increasing detail in the 30 years immediately prior to 2001, including a detailed case study of ADO support to the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games, before drawing some broad conclusions on the Australian experience of the involvement of its Defence Organisation in homeland security pre-9/11. Chapter Four establishes the pre-9/11 status quo in relation to the ADO’s involvement in homeland security role before analysing the general pattern of those roles. Chapter Five analyses and draws conclusions about the reasons for the ADO’s pre-9/11 involvement in homeland security roles, introducing an hypothetical construct to explain causal factors. Chapter Six examines the ADO’s involvement in homeland security roles post-9/11, including cases studies of ADO support to the conduct of the 2002 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting and the Melbourne 2006 Commonwealth Games. Chapter Seven analyses and identifies the factors led to the ADO’s pattern of involvement in homeland security post-9/11, further developing the hypothetical construct introduced in Chapter 5. Chapter Seven also contains supporting case studies on the ADO’s contribution to Australia’s national chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear response capability and on the state of New South Wales’ homeland security capabilities. Chapter Eight draws overall conclusions, including recommendations for Australian policy development and areas for further research. The essential conclusion reached is that the ADO’s involvement in homeland security roles, both before and since 9/11, has been shaped mostly by pragmatic political and managerial considerations of governments. Developments have normally occurred in an episodic and incremental fashion in response to ‘trigger events,’ although 9/11 altered this pattern somewhat by acting as a ‘threshold’ event that re-calibrated demands and expectations for ADO involvement. Supporting Appendices provide detail on the Australian…