Inhibition of zinc-dependent peptidases by Maillard reaction products

by Leticia Missagia de Marco

Institution: Technische Universität Dresden
Department: Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften
Degree: PhD
Year: 2015
Record ID: 1104881
Full text PDF: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:14-qucosa-162093


The Maillard reaction is a network of different non-enzymatic reactions between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups from amino acids, peptides, or proteins, which progresses in three major stages and originates a very heterogeneous mixture of reaction products. It is also known as non-enzymatic browning, due to the brown macromolecular pigments formed in the final stage of the reaction. The chemistry underlying the Maillard reaction is complex. It encloses not only one reaction pathway, but a whole network of various transformations. As virtually all foods contain both proteins and carbohydrates, Maillard reaction products are present in the daily diet in considerable amounts. The endogenous formation of Maillard reaction products, especially related to ageing and diabetes, aroused intense discussions about the health consequences of the “glycation”, the term that describes the in vivo reaction corresponding to the Maillard reaction in foods. Melanoidins are the final brown products of the Maillard reaction. They are responsible for the color formed during the heat processing of foods like coffee, bread, malt, and beef. Melanoidins are high molecular weight polydisperse polymers containing nitrogen. Their structure is largely unknown. Coffee melanoidins, which are object of the present study, contain thermally transformed polysaccharides, proteins, and phenolic compounds. Since the mechanisms involved on the formation of these macromolecules, and the chemical transformations which take place during the heat treatment are not completely elucidated, key structural features were analyzed. Especially the incorporation of chlorogenic acids in the melanoidin skeleton was object of attention of the present work. Another major aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the Maillard reaction on the inhibitory potential of food components against zinc metalloproteases. The studied enzymes were three human matrix metalloproteases (MMP-1, -2 and -9), which are able to degrade matrix proteins and participate in many physiological processes, including tissue turnover and repair, but also constitute important targets in malignant and degenerative diseases. A microbial collagenase from Chlostridium histolyticum was chosen due to its subtract similarity to MMPs. Furthermore, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE), which plays a central role in cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, was investigated. As a prototypical Maillard reaction product, coffee melanoidin was adopted. Due to the roast dependent inhibitory activity of the coffee melanoidin fractions against matrix metalloproteases, the functionalization caused by the non-enzymatic browning was closer investigated. Na-carboxyalkylated derivatives of a sequence of relevant peptides were synthesized, in a variation of the process-induced formation of Nε-carboxymethyllysine, a major advanced glycation end-product (AGE). The inhibitory activity against zinc metalloproteases of the sequence of selected peptides and their…