|Keywords:||Afghanistan; alternative development|
|Full text PDF:||http://rudar.ruc.dk/handle/1800/23165|
Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world. The infrastructure of the country is underdeveloped. Furthermore, the level of opium cultivation in Afghanistan is the highest in the world. The economy of the country is mostly illicit, and opium contributes a lot towards its Gross Domestic Product. Insecure state and high level of poppy cultivation are very much connected. Afghan farmers are involved in production of opium, because the income received for poppy cannot be compared to income received for cultivation of other crops. In turn, this causes a violation of human rights in Afghanistan, global trafficking of opium and high-level of heroin addicts all over the Globe. These problems have become especially topical today, because last year Afghanistan had reached the highest level of opium cultivation in its modern history. In order to reduce the high level of poppy crops cultivation the Government of Afghanistan in cooperation with international actors such as the U.S. Government, British Government, European Union and United Nations have undertaken various counter narcotic measures, such as eradication, interdiction and implementation of alternative livelihoods. As many scholars argue, most of the counter narcotic measures have been ineffective. Alternative development programmes did not bring the same effect in every province they were implemented in. They were successful in some regions and failed in others. In my research I give an overview of the anti-drug policies in Afghanistan with a focus on alternative development. I analyze the alternative development programmes which have been most effective and suggest the programmes which, in my opinion, could become effective in conditions of modern Afghanistan. I suggest that actors implementing alternative development programmes should take into consideration the conditions of every province, as factors influencing on success or failure of alternative development strategies differ from province to province.