|Institution:||Delft University of Technology|
|Keywords:||Electromagnetic heating; carbonated water flooding; simulation in STARS; heavy oil recovery|
|Full text PDF:||http://resolver.tudelft.nl/uuid:20f82d9e-26a5-4846-9a7b-9f04769b5c4d|
Carbonated water flooding (CWF) is an enhanced oil recovery method where an oil reservoir is flooded with water containing dissolved CO2. The CO2 is then transferred into the oil phase leading to the swelling of the oil and to the reduction of its viscosity. This method was proven by several field trials but did not reach the status of a routine application. Its main limitation, in comparison to plain CO2 flooding or Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG), is its delayed response in oil production. Low frequency EM heating, has been applied in the field since the 1960’s and could be used to precondition the reservoir and accelerate the process and possibly increase the recovery factor. This thesis investigates the potential of combining CWF with electromagnetic (EM) heating to enhance the recovery of heavy oil reservoirs. Several scenarios involving the EM heating of the reservoir for several months few months prior to operating in commingling with CWF have been considered. The reservoir simulations show that an appropriate selection of the EM heating strategy leads to well-distributed temperatures increase in the reservoir. This leads to a more uniform decrease of the oil viscosity. Combination of EM heating increases appreciably oil production due to synergistic effects of heating and CO2 transfer into the oil. Earlier response in oil production can be achieved by an optimized CO2:water slug size and temperature. An effective scheme for EM heating and best CO2:water slug size are recommended to achieve highest recovery and better economics.