AbstractsEarth & Environmental Science

Modelling surfaceevolution coupled with tectonics

by Sarah Schröder

Institution: Universität Potsdam
Year: 2016
Posted: 02/05/2017
Record ID: 2107016
Full text PDF: https://publishup.uni-potsdam.de/opus4-ubp/frontdoor/index/index/docId/9038


This study presents the development of 1D and 2D Surface Evolution Codes (SECs) and their coupling to any lithospheric-scale (thermo-)mechanical code with a quadrilateral structured surface mesh. Both SECs involve diffusion as approach for hillslope processes and the stream power law to reflect riverbed incision. The 1D SEC settles sediment that was produced by fluvial incision in the appropriate minimum, while the supply-limited 2D SEC DANSER uses a fast filling algorithm to model sedimantation. It is based on a cellular automaton. A slope-dependent factor in the sediment flux extends the diffusion equation to nonlinear diffusion. The discharge accumulation is achieved with the D8-algorithm and an improved drainage accumulation routine. Lateral incision enhances the incision's modelling. Following empirical laws, it incises channels of several cells width. The coupling method enables different temporal and spatial resolutions of the SEC and the thermo-mechanical code. It transfers vertical as well as horizontal displacements to the surface model. A weighted smoothing of the 3D surface displacements is implemented. The smoothed displacement vectors transmit the deformation by bilinear interpolation to the surface model. These interpolation methods ensure mass conservation in both directions and prevent the two surfaces from drifting apart. The presented applications refer to the evolution of the Pamir orogen. A calibration of DANSER's parameters with geomorphological data and a DEM as initial topography highlights the advantage of lateral incision. Preserving the channel width and reflecting incision peaks in narrow channels, this closes the huge gap between current orogen-scale incision models and observed topographies. River capturing models in a system of fault-bounded block rotations reaffirm the importance of the lateral incision routine for capturing events with channel initiation. The models show a low probability of river capturings with large deflection angles. While the probability of river capturing is directly depending on the uplift rate, the erodibility inside of a dip-slip fault speeds up headward erosion along the fault: The model's capturing speed increases within a fault. Coupling DANSER with the thermo-mechanical code SLIM 3D emphasizes the versatility of the SEC. While DANSER has minor influence on the lithospheric evolution of an indenter model, the brittle surface deformation is strongly affected by its sedimentation, widening a basin in between two forming orogens and also the southern part of the southern orogen to south, east and west. Im Rahmen dieser Studie werden 1D und 2D Erosionsmodelle im Gebirgsmaßstab implementiert und mit Modellen für tektonische Deformation gekoppelt. Die Kopplungsmethode erlaubt unterschiedlich räumliche und zeitliche Auflösungen im tektonischen und im Erosionsmodell. Es werden sowohl vertikale als auch horizontale Bewegungen zwischen den Modellen transferiert. Darüber hinaus enthält die Kopplungsmethode ein Glättungsverfahren, um eventuelle Instabilitäten… Advisors/Committee Members: Weber, Michael (advisor).