The aim of this thesis was the elucidation of different ionization methods (resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization – REMPI, electrospray ionization – ESI, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization – APCI) in ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. In order to gain a better understanding of the ionization processes, several spectroscopic, mass spectrometric and theoretical methods were also used. Another focus was the development of experimental techniques, including a high resolution spectrograph and various combinations of IM and mass spectrometry. The novel high resolution 2D spectrograph facilitates spectroscopic resolutions in the range of commercial echelle spectrographs. The lowest full width at half maximum of a peak achieved was 25 pm. The 2D spectrograph is based on the wavelength separation of light by the combination of a prism and a grating in one dimension, and an etalon in the second dimension. This instrument was successfully employed for the acquisition of Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectra. Different spectroscopic methods (light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy) permitting a spatial as well as spectral resolution, were used to investigate the release of ions in the electrospray. The investigation is based on the 50 nm shift of the fluorescence band of rhodamine 6G ions of during the transfer from the electrospray droplets to the gas phase. A newly developed ionization chamber operating at reduced pressure (0.5 mbar) was coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. After REMPI of H2S, an ionization chemistry analogous to H2O was observed with this instrument. Besides H2S+ and its fragments, H3S+ and protonated analyte ions could be observed as a result of proton-transfer reactions. For the elucidation of the peaks in IM spectra, a combination of IM spectrometer and linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer was developed. The instrument can be equipped with various ionization sources (ESI, REMPI, APCI) and was used for the characterization of the peptide bradykinin and the neuroleptic promazine. The ionization of explosive compounds in an APCI source based on soft x-radiation was investigated in a newly developed ionization chamber attached to the ion trap mass spectrometer. The major primary and secondary reactions could be characterized and explosive compound ions could be identified and assigned to the peaks in IM spectra. The assignment is based on the comparison of experimentally determined and calculated IM. The methods of calculation currently available exhibit large deviations, especially in the case of anions. Therefore, on the basis of an assessment of available methods, a novel hybrid method was developed and characterized. Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Aufklärung unterschiedlicher Ionisationsmethoden (Resonanz-verstärkte Mehrphotonenionisation – REMPI, Elektrosprayionisation – ESI, chemische Ionisation bei Atmosphärendruck – APCI) in der Ionenmobilitäts (IM)-Spektrometrie. Um ein besseres Verständnis der Ionisationsprozesse zu erhalten, wurden zusätzlich ver¬schiedene… Advisors/Committee Members: Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd (advisor).