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Optical microcavities (OMs) are receiving increasing attention owing to their potential applications ranging from cavity quantum electrodynamics, optical detection to photonic devices. Recently, rolled-up structures have been demonstrated as OMs which have gained considerable attention owing to their excellent customizability. To fully exploit this customizability, asymmetric and topological rolled-up OMs are proposed and investigated in addition to conventional rolled-up OMs in this thesis. By doing so, novel phenomena and applications are demonstrated in OMs. The fabrication of conventional rolled-up OMs is presented in details. Then, dynamic mode tuning by a near-field probe is performed on a conventional rolled-up OM. Next, mode splitting in rolled-up OMs is investigated. The effect of single nanoparticles on mode splitting in a rolled-up OM is studied. Because of a non-synchronized oscillating shift for different azimuthal split modes induced by a single nanoparticle at different positions, the position of the nanoparticle can be determined on the rolled-up OM. Moreover, asymmetric rolled-up OMs are fabricated for the purpose of introducing coupling between spin and orbital angular momenta (SOC) of light into OMs. Elliptically polarized modes are observed due to the SOC of light. Modes with an elliptical polarization can also be modeled as coupling between the linearly polarized TE and TM mode in asymmetric rolled-up OMs. Furthermore, by adding a helical geometry to rolled-up structures, Berry phase of light is introduced into OMs. A -π Berry phase is generated for light in topological rolled-up OMs so that modes have a half-integer number of wavelengths. In order to obtain a deeper understanding for existing rolled-up OMs and to develop the new type of rolled-up OMs, complete theoretical models are also presented in this thesis.