Space-Vector-Based Pulse Width Modulation Strategies To Reduce Pulsating Torque In Induction Motor Drives

by V S Hari

Institution: Indian Institute of Science
Year: 2014
Keywords: Pulse Width Modulation; Space Vector; Pulsating Torque; Torque Ripple; Induction Motor Drives; Space Vector PWM; Current Ripple; Voltage Source Inverter (VSI); Electrical Engineering
Record ID: 1209433
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/2005/2441


Voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the speed of an induction motor by applying AC voltage of variable amplitude and frequency. The semiconductor switches in a VSI are turned on and off in an appropriate fashion to vary the output voltage of the VSI. Various pulse width modulation (PWM) methods are available to generate the gating signals for the switches. The process of PWM ensures proper fundamental voltage, but introduces harmonics at the output of the VSI. Ripple in the developed torque of the induction motor, also known as pulsating torque, is a prominent consequence of the harmonic content. The harmonic voltages, impressed by the VSI on the motor, differ from one PWM method to another. Space-vector-based approach to PWM facilitates a large number of switching patterns or switching sequences to operate the switches in a VSI. The switching sequences can be classified as conventional, bus-clamping and advanced bus-clamping sequences. The conventional sequence switches each phase once in a half-carrier cycle or sub-cycle, as in case of sine-triangle PWM, third harmonic injection PWM and conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM). The bus-clamping sequences clamp a phase to one of the DC terminals of the VSI in certain regions of the fundamental cycle; these are employed by discontinuous PWM (DPWM) methods. Popular DPWM methods include 30 degree clamp PWM, wherein a phase is clamped during the middle 30 degree duration of each quarter cycle, and 60 degree clamp PWM which clamps a phase in the middle 60 degree duration of each half cycle. Advanced bus-clamping PWM (ABCPWM) involves switching sequences that switch a phase twice in a sub-cycle besides clamping another phase. Unlike CSVPWM and BCPWM, the PWM waveforms corresponding to ABCPWM methods cannot be generated by comparison of three modulating signals against a common carrier. The process of modulation in ABCPWM is analyzed from a per-phase perspective, and a computationally efficient methodology to realize the sequences is derived. This methodology simplifies simulation and digital implementation of ABCPWM techniques. Further, a quick-simulation tool is developed to simulate motor drives, operated with a wide range of PWM methods. This tool is used for validation of various analytical results before experimental investigations. The switching sequences differ in terms of the harmonic voltages applied on the machine. The harmonic currents and, in turn, the torque ripple are different for different switching sequences. Analytical expression for the instantaneous torque ripple is derived for the various switching sequences. These analytical expressions are used to predict the torque ripple, corresponding to different switching sequences, at various operating conditions. These are verified through numerical simulations and experiments. Further, the spectral properties are studied for the torque ripple waveforms, pertaining to conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM), 30 degree clamp PWM, 60 degree clamp PWM and ABCPWM methods. Based on analytical,…