2015-09-30 Immobilized Ru(II) catalysts for transfer hydrogenation and oxidative alkene cleavage reactions

by Hendrik de Kotze

Institution: Stellenbosch University
Department: Chemistry and Polymer Science
Degree:  –
Year: 2015
Keywords: Immobilized; Heterogenization; Ruthenium(II); Oxidative cleavage; Transfer hydrogenation; MCM-41; SBA-15
Record ID: 1455593
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/96593


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The synthesis of a range of siloxane functionalized Ru(arene)Cl(N,N) complexes allowing for the synthesis of novel MCM-41 and SBA-15 immobilized ruthenium(II) catalysts, is described in this thesis. Two distinctly different approaches were envisaged to achieve successful heterogenization of these siloxane functionalized complexes. Condensation of the siloxane functionalized complexes, C2.4-C2.6 (siloxane tether attached to imine nitrogen) and C3.5-C3.7 (siloxane tether via the arene ring), with the surface silanols of the synthesized silica support materials MCM-41 and SBA-15, afforded immobilized catalysts IC4.1-IC4.6 (siloxane tether attached to imine nitrogen) and IC4.7-IC4.12 (siloxane tether via the arene ring). Model and siloxane functionalized complexes C2.1-C2.6 were prepared by the reaction of diimine Schiff base ligands L2.1-L2.6 with the [Ru(p-cymene)2Cl2]2 dimer. A second, novel, approach involved the introduction of the siloxane tether on the arene ligand of the complex. Cationic arene functionalized Ru(arene)Cl(N,N) complexes, C3.1-C3.4, were prepared with varying N,N ligands including bipyridine and a range of diimine ligands, with either propyl or diisopropyl(phenyl) substituents at the imine nitrogen (greater steric bulk around the metal center). The reaction of these propanol functionalized complexes with 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate, afforded urethane linked siloxane functionalized complexes C3.5-C3.8, where the siloxane tether is attached to the arene ring of the complex. The complexes were fully characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, NMR (1H and 13C) spectroscopy, ESI-MS analysis and microanalysis. Suitable crystals for the alcohol functionalized complex C3.1 were obtained and the resultant orange crystals were analyzed by single crystal XRD. The heterogenized catalysts, IC4.1-IC4.12, were characterized by smallangle powder X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET) surface analysis to name but a few. ICP-OES allowed for direct comparison of the model and immobilized systems during catalysis ensuring that the ruthenium loadings were kept constant. The application of the model complexes C2.1-C2.3 and C3.1-C3.3, as well as their immobilized counterparts, IC4.1-IC4.12, as catalyst precursors in the oxidative cleavage of alkenes (1-octene and styrene), were investigated. The proposed active species for the cleavage reactions was confirmed to be RuO4 (UV-Vis spectroscopy). In general it was observed that at lower conversions, aldehyde was formed as the major product. Increased reaction times resulted in the conversion of the formed aldehyde to the corresponding carboxylic acid. For the oxidative cleavage of 1-octene using the systems with the siloxane tether attached to the imine nitrogen, the immobilized systems outperformed the model systems in all regards. Higher…