Microwave Electrometry with Rydberg Eletromagnetically Induced Transparency in Vapor Cells

by Haoquan Fan

Institution: University of Oklahoma
Year: 2016
Keywords: Physics, Atomic.; Physics, Optics.; Engineering, Electronics and Electrical.
Posted: 02/05/2017
Record ID: 2094330
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/11244/44586


An atom-based approach is presented to detect absolute microwave (MW) electric fields (E-fields). The approach uses Rydberg atoms in vapor cells at room temperature. The MW E-field measurements utilize a bright resonance prepared within an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window. The large transition dipole moments between energetically adjacent Rydberg states enable this method to make traceable E-field measurements with a sensitivity that is several orders of magnitude higher than the current standard for MW E-field measurements. The method can be used to image MW E-field in the near field regime with a subwavelength resolution of {λMW/650}, where {λMW} is the wavelength of the MW E-field. A high accuracy of {1%} has been reached by minimizing the effects of the vapor cell geometry on the measured MW E-field. The dissertation also presents an alternative technique to perform the MW E-field measurement using dispersive properties of the EIT spectrum with a prism vapor cell. Recently, we applied a homodyne detection technique with a Mach Zehnder interferometer to achieve a new sensitivity limit for the MW E-field measurement, {∼3~μ Vcm-1Hz-1/2}. The new sensitivity is one order of magnitude better than our prior best sensitivity presented in Ref. [Nat. Phys. 8, 819 (2012)]. The Rydberg atom-based method is promising to be a new standard for MW E-field measurements and to develop into portable devices in the field of MW technologies. Advisors/Committee Members: Shaffer, James P (advisor), Barker, Peter (committee member), Moore-Furneaux, John E (committee member), Abraham, Eric R I (committee member), Parker, Gregory A (committee member).