Fault location using wide-area measurements and sparse estimation

by Guangyu Feng

Institution: Northeastern University
Year: 2016
Keywords: fault location; lasso; parallel computation; sparse estimation; wide-area measurement system; Electric fault location; Mathematical models; Electric lines; Fault location (Engineering); Mathematical models; Electric circuit analysis; Estimation theory; Regression analysis
Posted: 02/05/2017
Record ID: 2135180
Full text PDF: http://hdl.handle.net/2047/D20200268


This thesis describes a fault location method which relies on scattered wide-area synchronized phasor measurements and usage of sparse estimation techniques. The main contribution is the way fault location is reformulated as a sparse estimation problem. Faulted system is modeled by equivalent terminal bus injections which would cause the same changes in bus voltages with the fault current drawn at any point along the faulted line. Once these injections are estimated, the fact that the ratio between equivalent injections at the two terminal buses depends only on the ratio of serial impedances on each side of the fault point can be used to locate the fault. It is shown that this formulation applies to both two terminal lines as well as teed lines regardless of fault type or resistance. Assuming availability of an accurate three-phase network model and a sufficient number of phasor measurements over the entire network, an underdetermined set of linear equations can be formed and then solved for the sparse equivalent bus injections. Then the problem fits naturally into a Lasso formulation and can be solved via the LARS algorithm. Based on the condition for unique solution for Lasso problem, a scheme for optimal phasor measurement placement is also derived. Furthermore, alternations have been made to the basic implementation of LARS so that the method's reliability, robustness and efficiency is improved.