The applications of computational fluid dynamics to the cardiovascularsystem and the respiratory system

by Yi Fan

Institution: University of Hong Kong
Degree: M. Phil.
Year: 2011
Keywords: Fluid dynamics - Mathematical models.; Cardiovascular system - Mechanical properties.; Respiratory system - Mechanical properties.
Record ID: 1166881
Full text PDF: http://dx.doi.org/10.5353/th_b4775319


The diseases of cardiovascular system and the respiratory system have been the second and third killers causing deaths in Hong Kong. In this stressful civilized world, the prevalence and incidence of these diseases increased prominently which arouse our concern on the theories behind the pathological conditions. This report will focus on the biofluid mechanics in the large artery and in the upper airway. Thoracic aortic dissection, characterized by the tearing in the middle layer of vessel wall, is a catastrophic vascular disorder. The wall of the newly formed channel, the false lumen, is weakened and prone to aortic events. Endovascular repair is a minimally invasive technique for treating dissection patients. The biomechanical factors and the length of endograft were studied by computational fluid dynamics. Two geometrical factors showed a significant impact on the backflow in the false lumen. A larger false lumen and a larger distal tear size greatly affected the extent of thrombosis in the false lumen. It made the false lumen under a higher risk of vessel rupture. The computational prediction also demonstrated a more stable hemodynamic condition in the model with a longer endograft. These results provide important information for the clinicians to propose the surgical procedures and to improve the design of endografts. Airway obstruction is a common breathing disorder but it is always underdiagnosed. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and different dentofacial deformities are two pathological conditions in which the patients have the abnormal sizes of airways. Computational fluid dynamic was employed in both conditions with patient–specific models. In the part of OSA, pre– and post–operative models were studied. The dimensions and flow resistance of the upper airway showed a significant improvement after mandibular distraction. The percentage of stenosis and the flow resistance was reduced by 27.3% and 40.7% respectively. For the patients in three facial skeletal deformity groups, the cross–sectional area and the flow resistance were compared. The patients with Class II deformity had the smallest retroglossal and retroplatal dimensions as well as the greatest flow resistance. The results confirmed the effectiveness of mandibular distraction and also provide valuable implications for the clinicians on the treatment planning, particularly for the Class II subjects. published_or_final_version Mechanical Engineering master's Master of Philosophy